Machine Learning Applied to 3D Seismic Data from the Denver-Julesburg Basin Improves Stratigraphic Resolution in the Niobrara

By Carolan Laudon, Sarah Stanley, Patricia Santogrossi | Published with permission: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC 2019)  | July 2019

Abstract

Seismic attributes can be both powerful and challenging to incorporate into interpretation and analysis. Recent developments with machine learning have added new capabilities to multi-attribute seismic analysis. In 2018, Geophysical Insights conducted a proof of concept on 100 square miles of multi-client 3D data jointly owned by Geophysical Pursuit, Inc. (GPI) and Fairfield Geotechnologies (FFG) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJ). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a machine learning workflow to improve resolution within the reservoir intervals of the Niobrara and Codell formations, the primary targets for development in this portion of the basin.

The seismic data are from Phase 5 of the GPI/Fairfield Niobrara program in northern Colorado. A preliminary workflow which included synthetics, horizon picking and correlation of 28 wells was completed. The seismic volume was re-sampled from 2 ms to 1 ms. Detailed well time-depth charts were created for the Top Niobrara, Niobrara A, B and C benches, Fort Hays and Codell intervals. The interpretations, along with the seismic volume, were loaded into the Paradise® machine learning application, and two suites of attributes were generated, instantaneous and geometric. The first step in the machine learning workflow is Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a method of identifying attributes that have the greatest contribution to the data and that quantifies the relative contribution of each. PCA aids in the selection of which attributes are appropriate to use in a Self-Organizing Map (SOM). In this case, 15 instantaneous attribute volumes, plus the parent amplitude volume, were used in the PCA and eight were selected to use in SOMs. The SOM is a neural network-based machine learning process that is applied to multiple attribute volumes simultaneously. The SOM produces a non-linear classification of the data in a designated time or depth window.

For this study, a 60-ms interval that encompasses the Niobrara and Codell formations was evaluated using several SOM topologies. One of the main drilling targets, the B chalk, is approximately 30 feet thick; making horizontal well planning and execution a challenge for operators. An 8 X 8 SOM applied to 1 ms seismic data improves the stratigraphic resolution of the B bench. The neuron classification also images small but significant structural variations within the chalk bench. These variations correlate visually with the geometric curvature attributes. This improved resolution allows for precise well planning for horizontals within the bench. The 25 foot thick C bench and the 17 to 25 foot thick Codell are also seismically resolved via SOM analysis. Petrophysical analyses from wireline logs run in seven wells within the survey by Digital Formation; together with additional results from SOMs show the capability to differentiate a high TOC upper unit within the A marl which presents an additional exploration target. Utilizing 2D color maps and geobodies extracted from the SOMs combined with petrophysical results allows calculation of reserves for the individual reservoir units as well as the recently identified high TOC target within the A marl.

The results show that a multi-attribute machine learning workflow improves the seismic resolution within the Niobrara reservoirs of the DJ Basin and results can be utilized in both exploration and development.

 

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Introduction and preliminary work

The Denver-Julesburg Basin is an asymmetrical foreland basin that covers approximately 70,000 square miles over parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Nebraska. The basin has over 47,000 oil and gas wells with a production history that dates back to 1881 (Higley, 2015). In 2009, operators in the Wattenberg field began to drill and complete horizontal wells in the chalk benches of the Niobrara formation and within the Codell sandstone. As of October 2018, approximately 9500 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed within Colorado and Wyoming in the Niobrara and Codell formations (shaleprofile.com/2019/01/29/niobrara-co-wy-update-through-october-2018).

The transition to horizontal drilling necessitated the acquisition of modern, 3D seismic data (long offset, wide azimuth) to properly image the complex faulting and fracturing within the basin. In 2011, Geophysical Pursuit, Inc., in partnership with the former Geokinetics Inc., embarked on a multi-year, multi-client seismic program that ultimately resulted in the acquisition of 1580 square miles of contiguous 3D seismic data. In 2018, Geophysical Pursuit, Inc. (GPI) and joint-venture partner Fairfield Geotechnologies (FFG) provided Geophysical Insights with seismic data in the Denver-Julesburg Basin to conduct a proof of concept evaluation of the effectiveness of a machine learning workflow to improve resolution within the reservoir intervals of the Niobrara and Codell formations, currently the primary targets for development in this portion of the basin. The GPI/FFG seismic data analyzed are 100 square miles from the Niobrara Phase 5 multi-client 3D program in northern Colorado (Figure 1). Prior to the machine learning workflow, a preliminary interpretation workflow was carried out, that included synthetics, horizon picking and well correlation on 28 public wells with digital data. The seismic volume was resampled from 2 ms to 1 ms. Time depth charts were made with detailed well ties for the Top Niobrara, Niobrara A, B, and C benches, Fort Hays and Codell. The interpretations, along with the re-sampled seismic amplitude volume, were loaded into the Paradise® machine learning application. The machine learning software has several options for computing seismic attributes, and two suites were selected for the study: standard instantaneous attributes and geometric attributes from the AASPI (Attribute Assisted Seismic Processing and Interpretation) consortium (http://mcee.ou.edu/aaspi/).

Map of GPI FFG multi-client program
Figure 1: Map of GPI FFG multi-client program and study area outline
Geologic Setting of the Niobrara and Surrounding Formations

The Niobrara formation is late Cretaceous in age and was deposited in the Western Interior Seaway (Kaufmann, 1977). The Niobrara is subdivided into the basal Fort Hays limestone and the Smoky Hill member. The Smoky Hill member is further subdivided into three subunits informally termed Niobrara A, B, and C. These units consist of fractured chalk benches which are primary reservoirs with marls and shales between the benches which comprise source rocks and secondary reservoir targets. (Figure 2). The Niobrara unconformably overlies the Codell sandstone and is overlain by the Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale.

The Codell is also late Cretaceous in age, and unconformably underlies the Fort Hays member of the Niobrara formation. In general, the Codell thins from north to south due to erosional truncation (Sterling, Bottjer and Smith, 2016). In the study area, the thickness of the Codell ranges from 18 to 25 feet. Lewis (2013) inferred an eastern provenance for the Codell with a limited area of deposition or subsequent erosion through much of the DJ Basin. Based upon geochemical analyses, Sterling and others (2016) state that hydrocarbons produced from the Codell are sourced from the Niobrara, primarily the C marl, and the thermal maturity provides evidence of migration into the Codell. The same study found that oil produced from the Niobrara C chalk was generated in-situ.

Figure 2 (Sonnenberg, 2015) shows a generalized stratigraphic column and a structure map for the Niobrara in the DJ Basin along with an outline of the DJ basin and the location of the Wattenberg Field within which the study area is contained.

Wattenberg Field - DJ Basin
Figure 2: Outline of the DJ Basin with Niobrara structure contours and generalized stratigraphic column that shows the source rock and reservoir intervals for late Cretaceous units in the basin (from Sonnenberg, 2015).

Figure 3 shows the structural setting of the Niobrara in the study area, as well as types of fractures which can be expected to provide storage capacity and permeability for reservoirs within the chalk benches (Friedman and others, 1992). The study area covers approximately 100 square miles and shows large antiforms on the western edge. The area is normally faulted with most faults trending northeast to southwest. The Top Niobrara time structure also shows extensive small-scale structural relief which is visualized in a curvature attribute volume as shown in Figure 4. This implies that a significant amount of fracturing is present within the Niobrara.

Niobrara seismic two-way travel time
Figure 3: Gross structure of the Niobrara in the study area in seismic two-way travel time. Insets from Friedman and others, 1992, showing predicted fracture types from structural elements. Area shown is approximately 100 square miles.

top Niobrara Seismic data
Figure 4: Most positive curvature, K1 on top Niobrara. The faulting and fractures are complex with both NE-SW and NW-SE trends apparent. Area shown is approximately 100 square miles. Seismic data provided courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Meissner and others (1984) and Landon and others (2001) have stated that the Niobrara formation kerogen is Type-II and oil-prone. Landon and others, and Finn and Johnson (2005) have also stated that the DJ basin contains the richest Niobrara source rocks with TOC contents reaching eight weight percent. Niobrara petroleum production is dependent on fractures in the hard, brittle, carbonate-rich zones. These zones are overlain and/or interbedded with soft, ductile marine shales that inhibit migration and seal the hydrocarbons in the fractured zones.

Why Utilize Machine Learning?

In the study area, the Niobrara to Greenhorn section is represented in approximately 60 milliseconds of two-way travel time in the seismic data. Figure 5 shows an amplitude section through a well within the study area. Figure 6 is an index map of wells used in the study with the Anderson 11-2 well highlighted in red. It is apparent that the top Niobrara is a well resolved positive amplitude or peak which can be picked on either a normal amplitude section or an instantaneous phase display. The individual units within the Niobrara A bench, A marl, B bench, B marl, C bench, C marl, Fort Hays and Codell present a significant challenge for an interpreter to resolve using only one or two attributes. The use of simultaneous multiple seismic attributes holds promise to resolve thin beds and a machine learning approach is one methodology which has been documented to successfully resolve stratigraphy below tuning (Roden and others, 2015, Santogrossi, 2017).

Niobrara and Codell reservoirs
Figure 5: Amplitude section shows the approximately 60 milliseconds between marked horizons which contain the Niobrara and Codell reservoirs. Trace spacing is 110 feet, vertical scale is two-way time in seconds. Seismic data are shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Index map of vertical wells
Figure 6: Index map of vertical wells used in study. The dashed lines connect well names to well locations. Wells were obtained from the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission public database.

Machine Learning Data Preparation

The Niobrara Phase 5 3D data used for this study consisted of a 32-bit seismic amplitude volume that covers approximately 100 square miles. The survey contained 5.118 seconds of data with a bin spacing of 110 feet. Machine learning classifications benefit from sharper natural clusters of information through one level of finer trace sampling. Machine learned seismic resolution also benefits from sample-by-sample classification when compared to conventional wavelet analysis. Therefore, the data were upsampled to 1 ms from its original 2 ms interval by Geophysical Insights. The 1 ms amplitude data were used for seismic attribute generation.

Focus should be placed on the time interval that encompasses the geologic units of interest. The time interval selected for this study was 0.5 seconds to 2.2 seconds.

A total of 44 digital wells were obtained, 40 of which were within the seismic survey.

Classification by Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Multi-dimensional analysis and multi-attribute analysis go hand in hand. Because individuals are grounded in three-dimensional space, it is difficult to visualize what data in a higher number dimensional space looks like. Fortunately, mathematics doesn’t have this limitation and the results can be easily understood with conventional 2D and 3D viewers.

Working with multiple instantaneous or geometric seismic attributes generates tremendous volumes of data. These volumes contain huge numbers of data points which may be highly continuous, greatly redundant, and/or noisy. (Coleou et al., 2003). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a linear technique for data reduction which maintains the variation associated with the larger data sets (Guo and others, 2009; Haykin, 2009; Roden and others, 2015). PCA has the ability to separate attribute types by frequency, distribution, and even character. PCA technology is used to determine which attributes to use and which may be ignored due to their very low impact on neural network solutions.

Figure 7 illustrates the analysis of a data cluster in two directions offset by 90 degrees. The first principal component (eigenvector 1) analyses the data cluster along the longest axis. The second principal component (eigenvector 2) analyses the data cluster variations perpendicular to the first principal component. As stated in the diagram, each eigenvector is associated with an eigenvalue which shows how much variance is in the data.

2 attribute data PCA
Figure 7: 2 attribute data set demonstrating the concept of PCA

Eigenvectors and eigenvalues from inline 1683 were consistently used for Principal Component Analysis because line 1683 bisected the deepest well in the study area. The entire pre-Niobrara, Niobrara, Codell, and post-Niobrara depositional events were present in the borehole.

PCA results for the first two eigenvectors for the interval Top Niobrara to Top Greenhorn are shown in Figure 8. Results show the most significant attributes in the first eigenvector are Sweetness, Envelope, and Relative Acoustic Impedance; each contributes approximately 60% of the maximum value for the eigenvector. PCA results for the second eigenvector show Thin Bed and Instantaneous Frequency are the most significant attributes. Figure 9 shows instantaneous attributes from the first eigenvector (sweetness) and second eigenvector (thin bed indicator) extracted near the B chalk of the Niobrara. The table shown in Figure 9 lists the instantaneous attributes that PCA indicated contain the most significance in the survey and the eigenvector associated with the attribute. This selection of attributes comprises a ‘recipe’ for input to the Self-Organizing Maps for the interval Niobrara to Greenhorn.

Eigenvalue charts from PCA
Figure 8: Eigenvalue charts for Eigenvectors 1 and 2 from PCA for Top Niobrara to Top Greenhorn. Attributes that contribute more than 50% of the maximum were selected for input to SOM

Niobrara B chalk Attributes
Figure 9: Instantaneous attributes near the Niobrara B chalk. These are prominent attributes in Eigenvectors 1 and 2. On the right of the figure is a list of eight selected attributes for SOM analysis. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Self-Organzing Maps

Teuvo Kohonen, a Finnish mathematician, invented the concepts of Self-organizing Maps (SOM) in 1982 (Kohonen, T., 2001). Self-Organizing Maps employ the use of unsupervised neural networks to reduce very high dimensions of data to a scale that can be easily visualized (Roden and others, 2015). Another important aspect of SOMs is that every seismic sample is used as input to classification as opposed to wavelet-based classification.

Figures 10 and 11 illustrate classification by SOM. Within the 3D seismic survey, samples are first organized into attribute points with similar properties called natural clusters in attribute space. Within each cluster new, empty, multi-attribute samples, named neurons, are introduced. The SOM neurons will seek out natural clusters of like characteristics in the seismic data and produce a 2D mesh that can be illustrated with a two- dimensional color map.

SOM classification of 2 attributes into 4 clusters
Figure 10: Example SOM classification of two attributes into 4 clusters (neurons)

In other words, the neurons “learn” the characteristics of a data cluster through an iterative process (epochs) of cooperative then competitive training. When the learning is completed each unique cluster is assigned to a neuron number and each seismic sample is now classified (Smith, 2016).

how SOM works with 3D seismic volumes
Figure 11: Illustration of how SOM works with 3D seismic volumes

Note that the two-dimensional color map in Figure 11 shows an 8X8 topology. Topology is important. The finer the topology of the two-dimensional color map the finer the data clusters associated with each neuron become. For example: an 8X8 topology distributes 64 neurons throughout an attribute set, while a 12X12 topology distributes 144 neurons. Finer topologies help to refine variations in lithologies, porosity, and other reservoir characteristics. Although there is no theoretical limit to a two-dimensional map topology, experience has shown that there is a practical limit to the number of neuron topologies for geological resolution. Conversely, a coarser neuron topology is associated with much larger data clusters and helps to define structural features. For the Niobrara project an 8X8 topology appeared to give the best stratigraphic resolution for instantaneous attributes and a 5X5 topology resolved the geometric attributes most effectively.

SOM Results for the Survey and their Interpretation

The SOM topology selected to best resolve the sub-Niobrara stratigraphy from the eight instantaneous attributes is an 8X8 hexagonal which yields 64 individual neurons. The SOM interval selected was Top Niobrara to Top Greenhorn. The next sequence of figures highlights the improved resolution provided by the SOM when compared to the original amplitude data. Figure 12 shows a north-south inline through the survey and through the Rotharmel 11-33 well which was one of the wells selected for petrophysical analysis. The original amplitude data is shown along with the SOM result for the interval.

original amplitude data & 8X8 SOM resul
Figure 12: North-South inline showing the original amplitude data (upper) and the 8X8 SOM result (lower) from Top Niobrara through Greenhorn horizons. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

The next image, Figure 13, zooms into the SOM and highlights the correlation with lithology from petrophysical analysis. The B chalk is noted by a stacked pattern of yellow-red-yellow neurons, with the red representing the maximum carbonate content within the middle of the chalk bench.

Rotharmel 11-33 Well Composite
Figure 13: 8X8 Instantaneous SOM through Rotharmel 11-33 with well log composite. The B bench, highlighted in green on the wellbore, ties the yellow-red-yellow sequence of neurons. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

One can see on the SOM the sweet spot within the B chalk and that there is a fair amount of small-scale structural relief present. These results aid in the resolution of structural offset within the reservoir away from well control which is critical for staying in a 20 to 30 foot zone when drilling horizontally. Each classified sample is 1 ms in thickness which converted to depth equates to roughly 7 feet.

Figure 14 shows the K2 curvature attribute co-rendered with the SOM results in vertical sections. The Rotharmel 11-33 is at the intersection of the vertical sections. The curvature is extracted at the middle of the B chalk and shows good agreement with the SOM. The entire B bench is represented by only 5-6 ms of seismic data.

instantaneous SOM
Figure 14: Most negative curvature, K2 rendered at the middle of the B chalk. Vertical sections are an 8X8 instantaneous SOM Top Niobrara to Top Greenhorn. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.
A Marl Results

Seven wells within the survey were sent to a third party for petrophysical analysis (Figure 15). The analysis identified zones of interest within the Niobrara marls which are typically considered source rocks. The calculations show a high TOC zone in the upper A marl which the analysis identifies as shale pay (Figure 16). A seismic cross-section of the 8X8 instantaneous SOM (Figure 16) through the three wells depicted shows that this zone is well imaged. The neurons can be isolated and volumetric calculations derived from the representative neurons.

petrophysical analysis
Figure 15: Index map for wells used in petrophysical analysis (in red)

Petrophysical results and SOM
Figure 16: Petrophysical results and SOM for three wells in the study area. The TOC curve (Track 12) and Shale pay curve (Track 10), highlighted in yellow, indicate the Upper A marl is both a rich source rock and a potential shale reservoir. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Codell Results

The Codell sandstone in general and within the study area shows more heterogeneity in reservoir properties than the Niobrara chalk benches. The petrophysical analysis on 7 wells shows net pay ranging from zero feet to three feet. The gross thickness ranges from 17 feet to 25 feet. The SOM results reflect this heterogeneity, resolve the Codell gross interval throughout most of the study area, and thus, can be useful for horizontal well planning.

Figures 17 and 18 shows inline 60 through a well with the Top Niobrara to Greenhorn 8X8 SOM results. The 2D color map has been manipulated to emphasize the lower interval from approximately base Niobrara through the Codell. Figure 18 zooms into the well and shows the specific neurons associated with the Codell interval. Figures 19 shows a N-S traverse through four wells again with the Codell interval highlighted through use of a 2D color map. The western and southwest areas of the survey show a much more continuous character to the classification with only two neurons representing the Codell interval (6 and 48). Figure 20 shows both the N-S traverse and a crossline through the anomaly.

Instantaneous 8X8 SOM
Figure 17: Instantaneous 8X8 SOM, Top Niobrara to Greenhorn. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

specific stratigraphic interval
Figure 18: Detailed look at the Codell portion of the SOM at the Haythorn 4-12 with GR in background. The 2D color map shows how neurons can be isolated to show a specific stratigraphic interval. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

4 wells SOM
Figure 19: Traverse through 4 wells in the western part of the study area showing the isolation of the Codell sandstone within the SOM. The south west part of the line shows the Codell being represented by only 2 neurons (6 and 48). The colormap can be interrogated to determine which attributes contribute to any given neuron. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Seismic data SW Codell
Figure 20: View of the SW Codell anomaly where the neuron stacking pattern changes to two neurons only (6 and 47). Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

3D view of neurons
Figure 21: 3D view of neurons isolated from the SOM in the Codell interval. The areas where red is prominent and continuous show the extent of Codell represented by neurons 6 and 47 only. Also, an area in the eastern part of the study is outlined. The Codell is not represented in this area by the six neurons highlighted in the 2D color map. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

Unfortunately, vertical well control was not available through this southwestern anomaly. To examine the extent of individual neurons within the SOM at Codell level, the next image, Figure 21, shows a 3D view of the isolated Codell neurons. The southwest anomaly is apparent as well as similar anomalies in the northern portion of the survey. What is also immediately apparent is that in the east-central portion of the survey, the Codell is not represented by the six neurons (6,7,47, 48, 55, 56) previously used to isolate it within the volume. Figure 22 takes a closer look at the SOM results through this area and also utilizes the original amplitude data. Both the SOM and the amplitude data show a change in character throughout the entire section, but the SOM results only change significantly in the lower Niobrara to Greenhorn portion of the interval.

The machine learning application has a feature in which individual neurons can be queried for statistics on how individual seismic attributes contribute to the cluster which makes up the neuron. Queries were done on all of the neurons within the Codell and shown are the results for neuron 6 which is one of 2 neurons characteristic of the southwestern Codell anomaly and on neuron 61in the area where the SOM changes significantly in Figure 23. Neuron 6 has equal contributions from Instantaneous Frequency, Hilbert, Thin Bed, and Relative Acoustic Impedance. Neuron 61 shows Instantaneous Q as the top attribute which is consistent with the interpretation of the section being structurally disturbed or highly fractured.

West-East crossline SOM and amplitude data
Figure 22: West-East crossline through two wells showing the SOM and amplitude data through the blank area from Figure 23. The seismic character and classification results differ significantly in this portion of the survey for the lower Niobrara, Fort Hays and Codell. This area is interpreted to be highly fractured. Seismic data is shown courtesy of GPI and FFG.

attribute details for individual neurons
Figure 23: Example of attribute details for individual neurons (6 and 61). This shows the contribution of individual attributes to the neuron.

Structural Attributes

The machine learning workflow can be applied to geometric attributes. PCA and SOM need to be run separately from the instantaneous attributes since PCA assumes a Gaussian distribution of the attributes. This assumption doesn’t hold for geometric attributes but the SOM process does not assume any distribution and thus still finds patterns in the data. To produce a structural SOM, four attributes were selected from PCA: Curvature_K1, Similarity, Energy Ratio, Texture Entropy, and Texture Homogeneity. These were combined with the original amplitude data to generate SOMs from the Top Niobrara to Top Greenhorn interval. Several SOM topologies were generated with geometric attributes and a 5X5 yielded good results. Figure 24 shows the geometrical SOM results at the Top Niobrara, B bench, and Codell. The Top Niobrara level shows major faults, but not nearly as much structural disturbance as the mid-Niobrara B bench or the Codell level. The eastern part of the survey where the instantaneous classification changed also shows significant differences between the B bench and Codell and agrees with the interpretation that this is a highly fractured area for the lower Niobrara and Codell. The B bench appears more structurally disrupted than the Top Niobrara but shows fewer areal changes compared to Codell. Pressure and production data could help confirm how these features relate to reservoir quality.

Conclusion

Seismic multi-attribute analysis has always held the promise of improving interpretations via the integration of attributes which respond to subsurface conditions such as stratigraphy, lithology, faulting, fracturing, fluids, pressure, etc. Machine learning augments traditional interpretation and attribute analysis by utilizing attribute space to simultaneously classify suites of attributes into sample based, high dimension clusters that are subsequently visualized and further interpreted in the 3D seismic survey. 2D colormaps aid in their interpretation and visualization.

In the DJ Basin, we have resolved the primary reservoir targets, the Niobrara chalk benches and the Codell formation, represented within approximately 60 ms of data in two-way time, to the level of one to five neurons which is approximately 7 to 35 feet in thickness. Structural SOM classifications with a suite of geometric attributes better image the complex faulting and fracturing and its variations throughout the reservoir interval. The classification volumes are designed to aid in drilling target identification, reserves calculations and horizontal well planning.

References

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Finn, T. M. and Johnson, R. C., 2005, Niobrara Total Petroleum System in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Chapter 6 of Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, USGS Southwestern Wyoming Province Assessment Team, U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS–69–D.

Guo, H., K. J. Marfurt, and J. Liu, 2009, Principal component spectral analysis: Geophysics, 74, no. 4, p. 35–43.

Haykin, S., 2009, Neural networks and learning machines, 3rd ed.: Pearson.

Kauffman, E.G., 1977, Geological and biological overview— Western Interior Cretaceous Basin, in Kauffman, E.G., ed., Cretaceous facies, faunas, and paleoenvironments across the Western Interior Basin: The Mountain Geologist, v. 14, nos. 3 and 4, p. 75–99.

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Lewis, R.K., 2013, Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of the Late Cretaceous (Late Turonian) Codell Sandstone and Juana Lopez Member of the Carlile Shale, Southeast Colorado: Colorado School of Mines MS Thesis, 190 p.

Longman, M.W., Luneau, B.A., and Landon, S.M., 1998, Nature and distribution of Niobrara lithologies in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of the Rocky Mountain Region: The Mountain Geologist, v. 35, no. 4, p. 137–170.

Luneau, B., Longman, M., Kaufman, P., and Landon, S., 2011, Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Characteristics of the Niobrara Formation in the Denver Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, AAPG Search and Discovery Article #50469.

Meissner, F.F., Woodward, J., and Clayton, J.L., 1984, Stratigraphic relationships and distribution of source rocks in the greater Rocky Mountain region, in Woodward, J., Meissner, F.F., and Clayton, J.L., eds., Hydrocarbon source rocks of the greater Rocky Mountain region: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists Guidebook, p. 1–34.

Molenaar, C.M., and Rice, D.D., 1988, Cretaceous rocks of the Western Interior Basin, in Sloss, L.L., ed., Sedimentary cover-North American craton, U.S.: Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. D–2, p. 77–82.

Roden, R., Smith, T., and Sacrey, D., 2015, Geologic pattern recognition from seismic attributes: Principal component analysis and self-organizing maps, Interpretation, Vol. 3, No. 4, p. SAE59-SAE83.

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    Examination of vertical seismic profile (VSP) data with unsupervised machine learning technology is a rigorous way to compare the fabric of down-going, illuminating, P and S wavefields with the fabric of up-going reflections and interbed multiples created by these wavefields. This concept is introduced in this paper by applying unsupervised learning to VSP data to better understand the physics of P and S reflection seismology. The zero-offset VSP data used in this investigation were acquired in a hard-rock, fast-velocity, environment that caused the shallowest 2 or 3 geophones to be inside the near-field radiation zone of a vertical-vibrator baseplate. This study shows how to use instantaneous attributes to backtrack down-going direct-P and direct-S illuminating wavelets to the vibrator baseplate inside the near-field zone. This backtracking confirms that the points-of-origin of direct-P and direct-S are identical. The investigation then applies principal component (PCA) analysis to VSP data and shows that direct-S and direct-P wavefields that are created simultaneously at a vertical-vibrator baseplate have the same dominant principal components. A self-organizing map (SOM) approach is then taken to illustrate how unsupervised machine learning describes the fabric of down-going and up-going events embedded in vertical-geophone VSP data. These SOM results show that a small number of specific neurons build the down-going direct-P illuminating wavefield, and another small group of neurons build up-going P primary reflections and early-arriving down-going P multiples. The internal attribute fabric of these key down-going and up-going neurons are then compared to expose their similarities and differences. This initial study indicates that unsupervised machine learning, when applied to VSP data, is a powerful tool for understanding the physics of seismic reflectivity at a prospect. This research strategy of analyzing VSP data with unsupervised machine learning will now expand to horizontal-geophone VSP data.

    Bob A. Hardage

    Bob A. Hardage received a PhD in physics from Oklahoma State University. His thesis work focused on high-velocity micro-meteoroid impact on space vehicles, which required trips to Goddard Space Flight Center to do finite-difference modeling on dedicated computers. Upon completing his university studies, he worked at Phillips Petroleum Company for 23 years and was Exploration Manager for Asia and Latin America when he left Phillips. He moved to WesternAtlas and worked 3 years as Vice President of Geophysical Development and Marketing. He then established a multicomponent seismic research laboratory at the Bureau of Economic Geology and served The University of Texas at Austin as a Senior Research Scientist for 28 years. He has published books on VSP, cross-well profiling, seismic stratigraphy, and multicomponent seismic technology. He was the first person to serve 6 years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). His Board service was as SEG Editor (2 years), followed by 1-year terms as First VP, President Elect, President, and Past President. SEG has awarded him a Special Commendation, Life Membership, and Honorary Membership. He wrote the AAPG Explorer column on geophysics for 6 years. AAPG honored him with a Distinguished Service award for promoting geophysics among the geological community.

    Carrie Laudon
    Senior Geophysical Consultant

    Calibrating SOM Results to Wells – Improving Stratigraphic Resolution in the Niobrara

    Over the last few years, because of the increase in low cost computer power, individuals and companies have stepped up investigations into the use of machine learning in many areas of E&P. For the geosciences, the emphasis has been in reservoir characterization, seismic data processing and most recently, interpretation.
    By using statistical tools such as Attribute Selection, which uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Multi-Attribute Classification using Self Organizing Maps (SOM), a multi-attribute 3D seismic volume can be “classified.” PCA reduces a large set of seismic attributes to those that are the most meaningful. The output of the PCA serves as the input to the SOM, a form of unsupervised neural network, which when combined with a 2D color map facilitates the identification of clustering within the data volume.
    The application of SOM and PCA in Paradise will be highlighted through a case study of the Niobrara unconventional reservoir. 100 square miles from Phase 5 of Geophysical Pursuit, Inc. and Fairfield Geotechnologies’ multiclient library were analyzed for stratigraphic resolution of the Niobrara chalk reservoirs within a 60 millisecond two-way time window. Thirty wells from the COGCC public database were available to corroborate log data to the SOM results. Several SOM topologies were generated and extracted within Paradise at well locations. These were exported and run through a statistical analysis program to visualize the neuron to reservoir correlations via histograms. Chi2 squared independence tests also validated a relationship between SOM neuron numbers and the presence of reservoir for all chalk benches within the Niobrara.

    Dr. Carrie Laudon
    Senior Geophysical Consultant

    Carolan (Carrie) Laudon holds a PhD in geophysics from the University of Minnesota and a BS in geology from the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire. She has been Senior Geophysical Consultant with Geophysical Insights since 2017 working with Paradise®, their machine learning platform. Prior roles include Vice President of Consulting Services and Microseismic Technology for Global Geophysical Services and 17 years with Schlumberger in technical, management and sales, starting in Alaska and including Aberdeen, Scotland, Houston, TX, Denver, CO and Reading, England. She spent five years early in her career with ARCO Alaska as a seismic interpreter for the Central North Slope exploration team.

    Deborah Sacrey
    Owner, Auburn Energy

    Finding Hydrocarbons using SOM Classification

    In the past, the use of unsupervised neural analysis has been used only on one seismic attribute at a time and using a seismic wavelet to find the natural clusters in the data. A new approach, using multiple seismic attributes and looking at the statistical clustering in the data based on sample interval can significantly help in discerning thin beds and subtle stratigraphic changes in the subsurface.

    Advances in computing power and the creation of many new seismic attribute families, such as Geometric, AVO, Inversion and the use of Spectral Decomposition over the last 30 years has made multiple attribute analysis extremely powerful.

    The key to this presentation is showing examples of how the SOM classification process has led to hydrocarbon discoveries in different types of depositional environments. Examples of cases in which the decision was made not to drill a well, thus avoiding a potential dry hole, will also be shown.

    Deborah Sacrey
    Owner, Auburn Energy

    Deborah is a geologist/geophysicist with 44 years of oil and gas exploration experience in Texas, Louisiana Gulf Coast and Mid-Continent areas of the US. She received her degree in Geology from the University of Oklahoma in 1976 and immediately started working for Gulf Oil in their Oklahoma City offices.

    She started her own company, Auburn Energy, in 1990 and built her first geophysical workstation using Kingdom software in 1996. She helped SMT/IHS for 18 years in developing and testing the Kingdom Software. She specializes in 2D and 3D interpretation for clients in the US and internationally. For the past nine years she has been part of a team to study and bring the power of multi-attribute neural analysis of seismic data to the geoscience public, guided by Dr. Tom Smith, founder of SMT. She has become an expert in the use of Paradise software and has seven discoveries for clients using multi-attribute neural analysis.

    Deborah has been very active in the geological community. She is past national President of SIPES (Society of Independent Professional Earth Scientists), past President of the Division of Professional Affairs of AAPG (American Association of Petroleum Geologists), Past Treasurer of AAPG and Past President of the Houston Geological Society. She is also Past President of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies and just ended a term as one of the GCAGS representatives on the AAPG Advisory Council. Deborah is also a DPA Certified Petroleum Geologist #4014 and DPA Certified Petroleum Geophysicist #2. She belongs to AAPG, SIPES, Houston Geological Society, South Texas Geological Society and the Oklahoma City Geological Society (OCGS).

    Dr. Tom Smith
    President & CEO

    Dr. Tom Smith received a BS and MS degree in Geology from Iowa State University. His graduate research focused on a shallow refraction investigation of the Manson astrobleme. In 1971, he joined Chevron Geophysical as a processing geophysicist but resigned in 1980 to complete his doctoral studies in 3D modeling and migration at the Seismic Acoustics Lab at the University of Houston. Upon graduation with the Ph.D. in Geophysics in 1981, he started a geophysical consulting practice and taught seminars in seismic interpretation, seismic acquisition and seismic processing. Dr. Smith founded Seismic Micro-Technology in 1984 to develop PC software to support training workshops which subsequently led to development of the KINGDOM Software Suite for integrated geoscience interpretation with world-wide success.

    The Society of Exploration Geologists (SEG) recognized Dr. Smith’s work with the SEG Enterprise Award in 2000, and in 2010, the Geophysical Society of Houston (GSH) awarded him an Honorary Membership. Iowa State University (ISU) has recognized Dr. Smith throughout his career with the Distinguished Alumnus Lecturer Award in 1996, the Citation of Merit for National and International Recognition in 2002, and the highest alumni honor in 2015, the Distinguished Alumni Award. The University of Houston College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics recognized Dr. Smith with the 2017 Distinguished Alumni Award.

    In 2009, Dr. Smith founded Geophysical Insights, where he leads a team of geophysicists, geologists and computer scientists in developing advanced technologies for fundamental geophysical problems. The company launched the Paradise® multi-attribute analysis software in 2013, which uses Machine Learning and pattern recognition to extract greater information from seismic data.

    Dr. Smith has been a member of the SEG since 1967 and is a professional member of SEG, GSH, HGS, EAGE, SIPES, AAPG, Sigma XI, SSA and AGU. Dr. Smith served as Chairman of the SEG Foundation from 2010 to 2013. On January 25, 2016, he was recognized by the Houston Geological Society (HGS) as a geophysicist who has made significant contributions to the field of geology. He currently serves on the SEG President-Elect’s Strategy and Planning Committee and the ISU Foundation Campaign Committee for Forever True, For Iowa State.

    Fabian Rada
    Sr. Geophysicist, Petroleum Oil & Gas Services

    Statistical Calibration of SOM results with Well Log Data (Case Study)

    The first stage of the proposed statistical method has proven to be very useful in testing whether or not there is a relationship between two qualitative variables (nominal or ordinal) or categorical quantitative variables, in the fields of health and social sciences. Its application in the oil industry allows geoscientists not only to test dependence between discrete variables, but to measure their degree of correlation (weak, moderate or strong). This article shows its application to reveal the relationship between a SOM classification volume of a set of nine seismic attributes (whose vertical sampling interval is three meters) and different well data (sedimentary facies, Net Reservoir, and effective porosity grouped by ranges). The data were prepared to construct the contingency tables, where the dependent (response) variable and independent (explanatory) variable were defined, the observed frequencies were obtained, and the frequencies that would be expected if the variables were independent were calculated and then the difference between the two magnitudes was studied using the contrast statistic called Chi-Square. The second stage implies the calibration of the SOM volume extracted along the wellbore path through statistical analysis of the petrophysical properties VCL and PHIE, and SW for each neuron, which allowed to identify the neurons with the best petrophysical values in a carbonate reservoir.

    Fabian Rada
    Sr. Geophysicist, Petroleum Oil & Gas Servicest

    Fabian Rada joined Petroleum Oil and Gas Services, Inc (POGS) in January 2015 as Business Development Manager and Consultant to PEMEX. In Mexico, he has participated in several integrated oil and gas reservoir studies. He has consulted with PEMEX Activos and the G&G Technology group to apply the Paradise AI workbench and other tools. Since January 2015, he has been working with Geophysical Insights staff to provide and implement the multi-attribute analysis software Paradise in Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), running a successful pilot test in Litoral Tabasco Tsimin Xux Asset. Mr. Rada began his career in the Venezuelan National Foundation for Seismological Research, where he participated in several geophysical projects, including seismic and gravity data for micro zonation surveys. He then joined China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) as QC Geophysicist until he became the Chief Geophysicist in the QA/QC Department. Then, he transitioned to a subsidiary of Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), as a member of the QA/QC and Chief of Potential Field Methods section. Mr. Rada has also participated in processing land seismic data and marine seismic/gravity acquisition surveys. Mr. Rada earned a B.S. in Geophysics from the Central University of Venezuela.

    Hal Green
    Director – Marketing & Business Development

    Introduction to the Paradise AI Workbench

    Companies worldwide are seeking solutions for their digital transformation initiatives and face a make-vs-buy decision when it comes to their E&P software tools. This talk will show how the commercial, off-the-shelf Paradise AI workbench can be a robust and cost-effective component of the new digital infrastructure. Using a combination of machine learning (ML) and deep learning applications, geoscientists apply Paradise to extract greater insights from seismic and well data for these and other objectives:

    • - Identify and calibrate detailed stratigraphy
    • - Distinguish thin beds below conventional tuning
    • - Classify seismic facies
    • - Detect faults automatically
    • - Interpret Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators
    • - Reveal fracture trends in shale plays
    • - Estimate reserves/resources

    The brief introduction includes single-slide use cases in different geologic settings to illustrate the general-purpose application of ‘AI’ technology. The summary also will provide some context to the other presentations available at the Geophysical Insights virtual booth.

    Hal Green
    Director of Marketing & Business Development

    Hal H. Green is a marketing executive and entrepreneur in the energy industry with more than 25 years of experience in starting and managing technology companies. He holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Texas A&M University and an MBA from the University of Houston. He has invested his career at the intersection of marketing and technology, with a focus on business strategy, marketing, and effective selling practices. Mr. Green has a diverse portfolio of experience in marketing technology to the hydrocarbon supply chain – from upstream exploration through downstream refining & petrochemical. Throughout his career, Mr. Green has been a proven thought-leader and entrepreneur, while supporting several tech start-ups.

    He started his career as a process engineer in the semiconductor manufacturing industry in Dallas, Texas and later launched an engineering consulting and systems integration business. Following the sale of that business in the late 80’s, he joined Setpoint in Houston, Texas where he eventually led that company’s Manufacturing Systems business. Aspen Technology acquired Setpoint in January 1996 and Mr. Green continued as Director of Business Development for the Information Management and Polymer Business Units.

    In 2004, Mr. Green founded Advertas, a full-service marketing and public relations firm serving clients in energy and technology. In 2010, Geophysical Insights retained Advertas as their marketing firm. Dr. Tom Smith, President/CEO of Geophysical Insights, soon appointed Mr. Green as Director of Marketing and Business Development for Geophysical Insights, in which capacity he still serves today.

    Hana Kabazi
    Product Manager

    Hana Kabazi joined Geophysical Insights in October of 201, and is now one of our Product Managers for Paradise. Mrs. Kabazi has over 7 years of oil and gas experience, including 5 years and Halliburton – Landmark. During her time at Landmark she held positions as a consultant to many E&P companies, technical advisor to the QA organization, and as product manager of Subsurface Mapping in DecsionSpace. Mrs. Kabazi has a B.S. in Geology from the University of Texas Austin, and an M.S. in Geology from the University of Houston.

    Heather Bedle
    Assistant Professor, University of Oklahoma

    Gas Hydrates, Reefs, Channel Architecture, and Fizz Gas: SOM Applications in a Variety of Geologic Settings

    Students at the University of Oklahoma have been exploring the uses of SOM techniques for the last year. This presentation will review learnings and results from a few of these research projects. Two projects have investigated the ability of SOMs to aid in identification of pore space materials – both trying to qualitatively identify gas hydrates and under-saturated gas reservoirs. A third study investigated individual attributes and SOMs in recognizing various carbonate facies in a pinnacle reef in the Michigan Basin. The fourth study took a deep dive of various machine learning algorithms, of which SOMs will be discussed, to understand how much machine learning can aid in the identification of deepwater channel architectures.

    Heather Bedle
    Assistant Professor, University of Oklahoma

    Heather Bedle received a B.S. (1999) in physics from Wake Forest University, and then worked as a systems engineer in the defense industry. She later received a M.S. (2005) and a Ph. D. (2008) degree from Northwestern University. After graduate school, she joined Chevron and worked as both a development geologist and geophysicist in the Gulf of Mexico before joining Chevron’s Energy Technology Company Unit in Houston, TX. In this position, she worked with the Rock Physics from Seismic team analyzing global assets in Chevron’s portfolio. Dr. Bedle is currently an assistant professor of applied geophysics at the University of Oklahoma’s School of Geosciences. She joined OU in 2018, after instructing at the University of Houston for two years. Dr. Bedle and her student research team at OU primarily work with seismic reflection data, using advanced techniques such as machine learning, attribute analysis, and rock physics to reveal additional structural, stratigraphic and tectonic insights of the subsurface.

    Ivan Marroquin
    Senior Research Geophysicist

    Connecting Multi-attribute Classification to Reservoir Properties

    Interpreters rely on seismic pattern changes to identify and map geologic features of importance. The ability to recognize such features depends on the seismic resolution and characteristics of seismic waveforms. With the advancement of machine learning algorithms, new methods for interpreting seismic data are being developed. Among these algorithms, self-organizing maps (SOM) provides a different approach to extract geological information from a set of seismic attributes.

    SOM approximates the input patterns by a finite set of processing neurons arranged in a regular 2D grid of map nodes. Such that, it classifies multi-attribute seismic samples into natural clusters following an unsupervised approach. Since machine learning is unbiased, so the classifications can contain both geological information and coherent noise. Thus, seismic interpretation evolves into broader geologic perspectives. Additionally, SOM partitions multi-attribute samples without a priori information to guide the process (e.g., well data).

    The SOM output is a new seismic attribute volume, in which geologic information is captured from the classification into winning neurons. Implicit and useful geological information are uncovered through an interactive visual inspection of winning neuron classifications. By doing so, interpreters build a classification model that aids them to gain insight into complex relationships between attribute patterns and geological features.

    Despite all these benefits, there are interpretation challenges regarding whether there is an association between winning neurons and geological features. To address these issues, a bivariate statistical approach is proposed. To evaluate this analysis, three cases scenarios are presented. In each case, the association between winning neurons and net reservoir (determined from petrophysical or well log properties) at well locations is analyzed. The results show that the statistical analysis not only aid in the identification of classification patterns; but more importantly, reservoir/not reservoir classification by classical petrophysical analysis strongly correlates with selected SOM winning neurons. Confidence in interpreted classification features is gained at the borehole and interpretation is readily extended as geobodies away from the well.

    Ivan Marroquin
    Senior Research Geophysicist

    Iván Dimitri Marroquín is a 20-year veteran of data science research, consistently publishing in peer-reviewed journals and speaking at international conference meetings. Dr. Marroquín received a Ph.D. in geophysics from McGill University, where he conducted and participated in 3D seismic research projects. These projects focused on the development of interpretation techniques based on seismic attributes and seismic trace shape information to identify significant geological features or reservoir physical properties. Examples of his research work are attribute-based modeling to predict coalbed thickness and permeability zones, combining spectral analysis with coherency imagery technique to enhance interpretation of subtle geologic features, and implementing a visual-based data mining technique on clustering to match seismic trace shape variability to changes in reservoir properties.

    Dr. Marroquín has also conducted some ground-breaking research on seismic facies classification and volume visualization. This lead to his development of a visual-based framework that determines the optimal number of seismic facies to best reveal meaningful geologic trends in the seismic data. He proposed seismic facies classification as an alternative to data integration analysis to capture geologic information in the form of seismic facies groups. He has investigated the usefulness of mobile devices to locate, isolate, and understand the spatial relationships of important geologic features in a context-rich 3D environment. In this work, he demonstrated mobile devices are capable of performing seismic volume visualization, facilitating the interpretation of imaged geologic features.  He has definitively shown that mobile devices eventually will allow the visual examination of seismic data anywhere and at any time.

    In 2016, Dr. Marroquín joined Geophysical Insights as a senior researcher, where his efforts have been focused on developing machine learning solutions for the oil and gas industry. For his first project, he developed a novel procedure for lithofacies classification that combines a neural network with automated machine methods. In parallel, he implemented a machine learning pipeline to derive cluster centers from a trained neural network. The next step in the project is to correlate lithofacies classification to the outcome of seismic facies analysis.  Other research interests include the application of diverse machine learning technologies for analyzing and discerning trends and patterns in data related to oil and gas industry.

    Jie Qi
    Research Geophysicist

    Applications of Deep Learning-based Seismic Fault Detection

    The traditional fault detection method is based on geophysicists’ hand-picking, which is very time-consuming on large seismic datasets. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)-based fault detection method is an emerging technology that shows great promise for the seismic interpreter. One of the more successful deep learning CNN methods uses synthetic data to train a CNN model. Faults are labeled as a single classification and other background geologic features are another classification in CNN-based fault detection. The labeled faults with associated seismic amplitude data are used to train in a CNN model, then predict or classify the corresponding fault classification in a large seismic dataset by the trained CNN model. The outperformance of CNN-based methods is that the computation cost of applications of a pre-trained CNN model to seismic fault classification is extremely low. This study shows applications of CNN models to predict faults from 3D seismic data. Firstly, the CNN model is trained with multiple 3D synthetic seismic amplitude data and their associated fault label data. The training data has been considered with different data quality, frequency bandwidth, noise levels, and structural features. The well-trained CNN model is then applied to detect faults on datasets, which exhibit different noise level and geologic features. Then the results from CNN are compared to those obtained using traditional seismic attributes and manual interpretation. The comparison indicates that the CNN method can perform more accurately and has a high potential to do more on seismic fault detection.

    Jie Qi
    Research Geophysicist

    Jie Qi is a Research Geophysicist at Geophysical Insights, where he works closely with product development and geoscience consultants. His research interests include machine learning-based fault detection, seismic interpretation, pattern recognition, image processing, seismic attribute development and interpretation, and seismic facies analysis. Dr. Qi received a BS (2011) in Geoscience from the China University of Petroleum in Beijing, and an MS (2013) in Geophysics from the University of Houston. He earned a Ph.D. (2017) in Geophysics from the University of Oklahoma, Norman. His industry experience includes work as a Research Assistant (2011-2013) at the University of Houston and the University of Oklahoma (2013-2017). Dr. Qi was with Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), Inc. in 2014 as a summer intern, where he worked on a semi-supervised seismic facies analysis. In 2017, he served as a postdoctoral Research Associate in the Attributed Assisted-Seismic Processing and Interpretation (AASPI) consortium at the University of Oklahoma from 2017 to 2020.

    Jie Qi
    Research Geophysicist

    An Integrated Fault Detection Workflow

    Seismic fault detection is one of the top critical procedures in seismic interpretation. Identifying faults are significant for characterizing and finding the potential oil and gas reservoirs. Seismic amplitude data exhibiting good resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio are key to identifying structural discontinuities using seismic attributes or machine learning techniques, which in turn serve as input for automatic fault extraction. Deep learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) performs well on fault detection without any human-computer interactive work. This study shows an integrated CNN-based fault detection workflow to construct fault images that are sufficiently smooth for subsequent fault automatic extraction. The objectives were to suppress noise or stratigraphic anomalies subparallel to reflector dip, and sharpen fault and other discontinuities that cut reflectors, preconditioning the fault images for subsequent automatic extraction. A 2D continuous wavelet transform-based acquisition footprint suppression method was applied time slice by time slice to suppress wavenumber components to avoid interpreting the acquisition footprint as artifacts by the CNN fault detection method. To further suppress cross-cutting noise as well as sharpen fault edges, a principal component edge-preserving structure-oriented filter is also applied. The conditioned amplitude volume is then fed to a pre-trained CNN model to compute fault probability. Finally, a Laplacian of Gaussian filter is applied to the original CNN fault probability to enhance fault images. The resulting fault probability volume is favorable with respect to traditional human-interpreter generated on vertical slices through the seismic amplitude volume.

    Laura Cuttill
    Practice Lead, Advertas

    Young Professionals – Managing Your Personal Brand to Level-up Your Career

    No matter where you are in your career, your online “personal brand” has a huge impact on providing opportunity for prospective jobs and garnering the respect and visibility needed for advancement. While geoscientists tackle ambitious projects, publish in technical papers, and work hard to advance their careers, often, the value of these isn’t realized beyond their immediate professional circle. Learn how to…

    • - Communicate who you are to high-level executives in exploration and development
    • - Avoid common social media pitfalls
    • - Optimize your online presence to best garner attention from recruiters
    • - Stay relevant
    • - Create content of interest
    • - Establish yourself as a thought leader in your given area of specialization
    Laura Cuttill
    Practice Lead, Advertas

    As a 20-year marketing veteran marketing in oil and gas and serial entrepreneur, Laura has deep experience in bringing technology products to market and growing sales pipeline. Armed with a marketing degree from Texas A&M, she began her career doing technical writing for Schlumberger and ExxonMobil in 2001. She started Advertas as a co-founder in 2004 and began to leverage her upstream experience in marketing. In 2006, she co-founded the cyber-security software company, 2FA Technology. After growing 2FA from a startup to 75% market share in target industries, and the subsequent sale of the company, she returned to Advertas to continue working toward the success of her clients, such as Geophysical Insights. Today, she guides strategy for large-scale marketing programs, manages project execution, cultivates relationships with industry media, and advocates for data-driven, account-based marketing practices.

    Mike Dunn
    Sr. Vice President of Business Development

    New Capabilities of 3.4

    Paradise has given interpreters the ability detect more detail within the seismic data. Therefore, a natural extension of the current software is the ability to easily compare the SOM and Geobody results to borehole logs and lithofacies. As a result of this exciting capability, Paradise is now able to display digital well logs, TD charts, formation tops, and cross-sections in simple and straightforward manner. In this What’s New in Paradise 3.4 presentation we will be discussing the new Well Log Cross Section functionality, GPU support for 3 AASPI algorithms, demonstrating significant speedup, and the latest Petrel 2020 connector. Examples of the new well functionality will use the offshore New Zealand Maui Field data set. In addition, a live demonstration will walk users through a well cross section workflow.

    Mike Dunn
    Senior Vice President Business Development

    Michael A. Dunn is an exploration executive with extensive global experience including the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, Australia, China and North Africa. Mr. Dunn has a proven a track record of successfully executing exploration strategies built on a foundation of new and innovative technologies. Currently, Michael serves as Senior Vice President of Business Development for Geophysical Insights.

    He joined Shell in 1979 as an exploration geophysicist and party chief and held increasing levels or responsibility including Manager of Interpretation Research. In 1997, he participated in the launch of Geokinetics, which completed an IPO on the AMEX in 2007. His extensive experience with oil companies (Shell and Woodside) and the service sector (Geokinetics and Halliburton) has provided him with a unique perspective on technology and applications in oil and gas. Michael received a B.S. in Geology from Rutgers University and an M.S. in Geophysics from the University of Chicago.

    Rocky R. Roden
    Senior Consulting Geophysicist

    What Interpreters Should Know about Machine Learning

    Our lives are intertwined with applications, services, orders, products, research, and objects that are incorporated, produced, or effected in some way by Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Buzz words like Deep Learning, Big Data, Supervised and Unsupervised Learning are employed routinely to describe Machine Learning, but how do these applications relate to geoscience interpretation and finding oil and gas. More importantly, do these Machine Learning methods produce better results than conventional interpretation approaches? This webinar will initially wade through the vernacular of Machine Learning and Data Science as it relates to the geoscientist. The presentation will review how these methods are employed, along with interpretation case studies of different machine learning applications. An overview of computer power and machine learning will be described. Machine Learning is a disruptive technology that holds great promise, and this webinar is an interpreter’s perspective, not a data scientist. This course will provide an understanding of how Machine Learning for interpretation is being utilized today and provide insights on future directions and trends.

    Rocky R. Roden
    Senior Consulting Geophysicist

    Over 45 years in industry as a Geophysicist, Exploration/Development Manager, Director of Applied Technology, and Chief Geophysicist. Previously with Texaco, Pogo Producing, Maxus Energy, YPF Maxus, and Repsol (retired as Chief Geophysicist 2001). Mr. Roden has authored or co-authored over 30 technical publications on various aspects of seismic interpretation, AVO analysis, amplitude risk assessment, and geoscience machine learning. Ex-Chairman of The Leading Edge editorial board. Currently a consultant with Geophysical Insights developing machine learning advances for oil and gas exploration and development and is a principal in the Rose and Associates DHI Risk Analysis Consortium, which has involved 85 oil companies since 2001, developing a seismic amplitude risk analysis program and worldwide prospect database. He holds a B.S. in Oceanographic Technology-Geology from Lamar University and an M.S. in Geological and Geophysical Oceanography from Texas A&M University.

    Sarah Stanley
    Senior Geoscientist

    New Capabilities of 3.4

    Paradise has given interpreters the ability detect more detail within the seismic data. Therefore, a natural extension of the current software is the ability to easily compare the SOM and Geobody results to borehole logs and lithofacies. As a result of this exciting capability, Paradise is now able to display digital well logs, TD charts, formation tops, and cross-sections in simple and straightforward manner. In this What’s New in Paradise 3.4 presentation we will be discussing the new Well Log Cross Section functionality, GPU support for 3 AASPI algorithms, demonstrating significant speedup, and the latest Petrel 2020 connector. Examples of the new well functionality will use the offshore New Zealand Maui Field data set. In addition, a live demonstration will walk users through a well cross section workflow.

    Sarah Stanley
    Senior Geoscientist and Lead Trainer

    Sarah Stanley joined Geophysical Insights in October, 2017 as a geoscience consultant, and became a full-time employee July 2018. Prior to Geophysical Insights, Sarah was employed by IHS Markit in various leadership positions from 2011 to her retirement in August 2017, including Director US Operations Training and Certification, the Operational Governance Team, and, prior to February 2013, Director of IHS Kingdom Training. Sarah joined SMT in May, 2002, and was the Director of Training for SMT until IHS Markit’s acquisition in 2011.

    Prior to joining SMT Sarah was employed by GeoQuest, a subdivision of Schlumberger, from 1998 to 2002. Sarah was also Director of the Geoscience Technology Training Center, North Harris College from 1995 to 1998, and served as a voluntary advisor on geoscience training centers to various geological societies. Sarah has over 37 years of industry experience and has worked as a petroleum geoscientist in various domestic and international plays since August of 1981. Her interpretation experience includes tight gas sands, coalbed methane, international exploration, and unconventional resources.

    Sarah holds a Bachelor’s of Science degree with majors in Biology and General Science and minor in Earth Science, a Master’s of Arts in Education and Master’s of Science in Geology from Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. Sarah is both a Certified Petroleum Geologist, and a Registered Geologist with the State of Texas. Sarah holds teaching credentials in both Indiana and Texas.

    Sarah is a member of the Houston Geological Society and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, where she currently serves in the AAPG House of Delegates. Sarah is a recipient of the AAPG Special Award, the AAPG House of Delegates Long Service Award, and the HGS President’s award for her work in advancing training for petroleum geoscientists. She has served on the AAPG Continuing Education Committee and was Chairman of the AAPG Technical Training Center Committee. Sarah has also served as Secretary of the HGS, and Served two years as Editor for the AAPG Division of Professional Affairs Correlator.

    Tom Smith
    President and CEO, Geophysical Insights

    Machine Learning for Incomplete Geoscientists

    This presentation covers big-picture machine learning buzz words with humor and unassailable frankness. The goal of the material is for every geoscientist to gain confidence in these important concepts and how they add to our well-established practices, particularly seismic interpretation. Presentation topics include a machine learning historical perspective, what makes it different, a fish factory, Shazam, comparison of supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods with examples, tuning thickness, deep learning, hard/soft attribute spaces, multi-attribute samples, and several interpretation examples. After the presentation, you may not know how to run machine learning algorithms, but you should be able to appreciate their value and avoid some of their limitations.

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